The combined financial statements of the Federal Reserve Banks were audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, independent auditors, for the years ended December 31, 2005 and 2004.
Report of Independent Auditors
To the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Board of Directors of the Federal Reserve Banks:
We have audited the accompanying combined statements of condition of the Federal Reserve Banks (the "Reserve Banks") as of December 31, 2005 and 2004, and the related combined statements of income and changes in capital for the years then ended, which have been prepared in conformity with the accounting principles, policies, and practices established by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. These combined financial statements are the responsibility of the Reserve Banks' management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these combined financial statements based on our audits.
We conducted our audits in accordance with auditing standards generally accepted in the United States of America. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the combined financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
As described in Note 3 , these combined financial statements were prepared in conformity with the accounting principles, policies, and practices established by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. These principles, policies, and practices, which were designed to meet the specialized accounting and reporting needs of the Federal Reserve System, are set forth in the Financial Accounting Manual for Federal Reserve Banks and constitute a comprehensive basis of accounting other than accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
In our opinion, the combined financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the combined financial position of the Reserve Banks as of December 31, 2005 and 2004, and the combined results of their operations for the years then ended, on the basis of accounting described in Note 3 .
March 23, 2006
|Gold certificates||$ 11,039||$ 11,041|
|Special drawing rights certificates||2,200||2,200|
|Items in process of collection||5,930||6,233|
|Loans to depository institutions||72||43|
|Securities purchased under agreements to resell||46,750||33,000|
|U.S. government securities, net||750,202||725,584|
|Investments denominated in foreign currencies||18,928||21,368|
|Accrued interest receivable||5,874||5,104|
|Bank premises and equipment, net||2,252||2,216|
|Liabilities and Capital|
|Federal Reserve notes outstanding, net||$758,359||$719,437|
|Securities sold under agreements to repurchase||30,505||30,783|
|U.S. Treasury, general account||4,573||5,912|
|Deferred credit items||5,039||5,306|
|Interest on Federal Reserve notes due U.S. Treasury||1,784||329|
|Accrued benefit costs||913||891|
|Total liabilities and capital||$847,327
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these combined financial statements.
|Interest on U.S. government securities||$28,959||$22,344|
|Interest on investments denominated in foreign currencies||283||269|
|Interest on loans to depository institutions||7
|Total interest income||29,249
|Interest expense on securities sold under agreements to repurchase||809
|Net interest income||28,440
|Other operating (loss) income|
|Income from services||901||866|
|Reimbursable services to government agencies||396||370|
|Foreign currency (losses) gains, net||(2,723)||1,230|
|Total other operating (loss) income||(1,295)
|Salaries and other benefits||1,709||1,604|
|Assessments by the Board of Governors||743||776|
|Total operating expenses||3,625
|Net income prior to distribution||$23,520
|Distribution of net income|
|Dividends paid to member banks||$781||$582|
|Transferred to surplus||1,271||2,783|
|Payments to U.S. Treasury as interest on Federal Reserve notes||21,468
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these combined financial statements.
|Capital paid-in||Surplus||Total capital|
|Balance at January 1, 2004 (176 million shares)||$ 8,847||$ 8,847||$17,694|
|Transferred to surplus||...||2,783||2,783|
|Net change in capital stock issued (61 million shares)||3,067||...
|Balance at December 31, 2004 (238 million shares)||$11,914||$11,630||$23,544|
|Transferred to surplus||...||1,271||1,271|
|Net change in capital stock issued (32 million shares)||1,622||...
|Balance at December 31, 2005 (270 million shares)||$13,536||$12,901
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these combined financial statements.
The twelve Federal Reserve Banks (Reserve Banks) are part of the Federal Reserve System (System) created by Congress under the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 (Federal Reserve Act), which established the central bank of the United States. The Reserve Banks are chartered by the federal government and possess a unique set of governmental, corporate, and central bank characteristics.
In accordance with the Federal Reserve Act, supervision and control of each Reserve Bank is exercised by a Board of Directors. The Federal Reserve Act specifies the composition of the Board of Directors for each of the Reserve Banks. Each board is composed of nine members serving three-year terms: three directors, including those designated as Chairman and Deputy Chairman, are appointed by the Board of Governors, and six directors are elected by member banks. Banks that are members of the System include all national banks and any state-chartered banks that apply and are approved for membership in the System. Member banks are divided into three classes according to size. Member banks in each class elect one director representing member banks and one representing the public. In any election of directors, each member bank receives one vote, regardless of the number of shares of Reserve Bank stock it holds.
The System also consists, in part, of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Board of Governors) and the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC). The Board of Governors, an independent federal agency, is charged by the Federal Reserve Act with a number of specific duties, including general supervision over the Reserve Banks. The FOMC is composed of members of the Board of Governors, the president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (FRBNY) and on a rotating basis four other Reserve Bank presidents.
The System performs a variety of services and operations. Functions include formulating and conducting monetary policy; participating actively in the payments system, including large-dollar transfers of funds, automated clearinghouse (ACH) operations, and check processing; distributing coin and currency; performing fiscal agency functions for the U.S. Treasury and certain federal agencies and other entities; serving as the federal government's bank; providing short-term loans to depository institutions; serving the consumer and the community by providing educational materials and information regarding consumer laws; supervising bank holding companies, state member banks, and U.S. offices of foreign banking organizations; and administering other regulations of the Board of Governors. The Systm also provides certain services to foreign central banks, governments, and international official institutions.
In performing fiscal agency functions for the U.S. Treasury, seven Reserve Banks provide U.S. securities direct purchase and savings bond processing services. In March 2004, the U.S. Treasury provided an implementation plan for consolidating the provision of these services at two Reserve Banks. The costs for the associated restructuring for the affected Banks have been included in footnote 10.
The FOMC, in the conduct of monetary policy, establishes policy regarding domestic open market operations, oversees these operations, and annually issues authorizations and directives to the FRBNY for its execution of transactions. The FRBNY is authorized to conduct operations in domestic markets, including direct purchase and sale of U.S. government securities, the purchase of securities under agreements to resell, the sale of securities under agreements to repurchase, and the lending of U.S. government securities. The FRBNY executes these open market transactions and holds the resulting securities, with the exception of securities purchased under agreements to resell, in the portfolio known as the System Open Market Account (SOMA).
In addition to authorizing and directing operations in the domestic securities market, the FOMC authorizes and directs the FRBNY to execute operations in foreign markets for major currencies in order to counter disorderly conditions in exchange markets or to meet other needs specified by the FOMC in carrying out the System's central bank responsibilities. The FRBNY is authorized by the FOMC to hold balances of, and to execute spot and forward foreign exchange (F/X) and securities contracts for, nine foreign currencies and to invest such foreign currency holdings ensuring adequate liquidity is maintained. The FRBNY is authorized to maintain reciprocal currency arrangements (F/X swaps) with two central banks, and "warehouse" foreign currencies for the U.S. Treasury and Exchange Stabilization Fund (ESF) through the Reserve Banks. In connection with its foreign currency activities, the FRBNY may enter into contracts that contain varying degrees of off-balance-sheet market risk, because they represent contractual commitments involving future settlement and counterparty credit risk. The FRBNY controls credit risk by obtaining credit approvals, establishing transaction limits, and performing daily monitoring procedures.
Although Reserve Banks are separate legal entities, in the interests of greater efficiency and effectiveness, they collaborate in the delivery of certain operations and services. The collaboration takes the form of centralized competency centers, operations sites, and product or service offices that have responsibility for the delivery of certain services on behalf of the Reserve Banks. Various operational and management models are used and are supported by service agreements between the Reserve Bank providing the service and the other eleven Reserve Banks. In some cases, costs incurred by a Reserve Bank for services provided to other Reserve Banks are not shared; in other cases, Reserve Banks are billed for services provided to them by another Reserve Bank.
Beginning in 2005, the Reserve Banks adopted a new management model for providing check services to depository institutions. Under this new model, the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta (FRBA) has the overall responsibility for managing the Reserve Banks' provision of check services and recognizes total System check revenue on its Statements of Income. FRBA compensates the other eleven Banks for the costs incurred to provide check services.
Accounting principles for entities with the unique powers and responsibilities of the nation's central bank have not been formulated by various accounting standard-setting bodies. The Board of Governors has developed specialized accounting principles and practices that it believes are appropriate for the significantly different nature and function of a central bank as compared with the private sector. These accounting principles and practices are documented in the Financial Accounting Manual for Federal Reserve Banks (Financial Accounting Manual), which is issued by the Board of Governors. All Reserve Banks are required to adopt and apply accounting policies and practices that are consistent with the Financial Accounting Manual and the financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the Financial Accounting Manual.
Differences exist between the accounting principles and practices in the Financial Accounting Manual and those generally accepted in the United States (GAAP) primarily due to the unique nature of the Reserve Banks' powers and responsibilities as part of the nation's central bank. The primary difference is the presentation of all security holdings at amortized cost, rather than using the fair value presentation requirements in accordance with GAAP. Amortized cost more appropriately reflects the Reserve Banks' security holdings given their unique responsibility to conduct monetary policy. While the application of current market prices to the securities holdings may result in values substantially above or below their carrying values, these unrealized changes in value would have no direct effect on the quantity of reserves available to the banking system or on the prospects for future Reserve Bank earnings or capital. Both the domestic and foreign components of the SOMA portfolio may involve transactions that result in gains or losses when holdings are sold prior to maturity. Decisions regarding security and foreign currency transactions, including their purchase and sale, are motivated by monetary policy objectives rather than profit. Accordingly, market values, earnings, and any gains or losses resulting from the sale of such securities and currencies are incidental to the open market operations and do not motivate these activities or policy decisions.
In addition, the Board of Governors and the Reserve Banks have elected not to present a Statement of Cash Flows because the liquidity and cash position of the Reserve Banks are not a primary concern given their unique powers and responsibilities. A Statement of Cash Flows, therefore, would not provide any additional meaningful information. Other information regarding the Reserve Banks' activities is provided in, or may be derived from, the Statements of Condition, Income, and Changes in Capital. There are no other significant differences between the policies outlined in the Financial Accounting Manual and GAAP.
The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with the Financial Accounting Manual requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of income and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Certain amounts relating to the prior year have been reclassified to conform to the current-year presentation. Unique accounts and significant accounting policies are explained below.
The Secretary of the U.S. Treasury is authorized to issue gold and special drawing rights (SDR) certificates to the Reserve Banks
Payment for the gold certificates by the Reserve Banks is made by crediting equivalent amounts in dollars into the account established for the U.S. Treasury. These gold certificates held by the Reserve Banks are required to be backed by the gold of the U.S. Treasury. The U.S. Treasury may reacquire the gold certificates at any time and the Reserve Banks must deliver them to the U.S. Treasury. At such time, the U.S. Treasury's account is charged, and the Reserve Banks' gold certificate accounts are lowered. The value of gold for purposes of backing the gold certificates is set by law at $42-2/9 a fine troy ounce. The Board of Governors allocates the gold certificates among Reserve Banks once a year based on the average Federal Reserve notes outstanding in each Reserve Bank.
Special drawing rights (SDRs) are issued by the International Monetary Fund (Fund) to its members in proportion to each member's quota in the Fund at the time of issuance. SDRs serve as a supplement to international monetary reserves and may be transferred from one national monetary authority to another. Under the law providing for United States participation in the SDR system, the Secretary of the U.S. Treasury is authorized to issue SDR certificates, somewhat like gold certificates, to the Reserve Banks. At such time, equivalent amounts in dollars are credited to the account established for the U.S. Treasury, and the Reserve Banks' SDR certificate accounts are increased. The Reserve Banks are required to purchase SDR certificates, at the direction of the U.S. Treasury, for the purpose of financing SDR acquisitions or for financing exchange stabilization operations. At the time SDR transactions occur, the Board of Governors allocates SDR certificate transactions among Reserve Banks based upon Federal Reserve notes outstanding in each District at the end of the preceding year. There were no SDR transactions in 2005 or 2004.
All depository institutions that maintain reservable transaction accounts or nonpersonal time deposits, as defined in regulations issued by the Board of Governors, have borrowing privileges at the discretion of each of the Reserve Banks. Borrowers execute certain lending agreements and deposit sufficient collateral before credit is extended. Loans are evaluated for collectibility, and currently all are considered collectible and fully collateralized. If loans were ever deemed to be uncollectible, an appropriate reserve would be established. Interest is accrued using the applicable discount rate established at least every fourteen days by the Board of Directors of each of the Reserve Banks, subject to review and determination by the Board of Governors.
U.S. government securities and investments denominated in foreign currencies comprising the SOMA are recorded at cost, on a settlement-date basis, and adjusted for amortization of premiums or accretion of discounts on a straight-line basis. Interest income is accrued on a straight-line basis. Gains and losses resulting from sales of securities are determined by specific issues based on average cost. Foreign-currency-denominated assets are revalued daily at current foreign currency market exchange rates in order to report these assets in U.S. dollars. Realized and unrealized gains and losses on investments denominated in foreign currencies are reported as "Foreign currency (losses) gains, net." Activity related to U.S. government securities, including the related premiums, discounts, and realized and unrealized gains and losses, is allocated to each Reserve Bank on a percentage basis derived from an annual settlement of interdistrict clearings that occurs in April of each year. The settlement equalizes Reserve Bank gold certificate holdings to Federal Reserve notes outstanding in each District. Activity related to investments in foreign-currency-denominated assets is allocated to each Reserve Bank based on the ratio of each Reserve Bank's capital and surplus to aggregate capital and surplus at the preceding December 31.
The FRBNY may engage in tri-party purchases of securities under agreements to resell (tri-party agreements). Tri-party agreements are conducted with two commercial custodial banks that manage the clearing and settlement of collateral. Collateral is held in excess of the contract amount. Acceptable collateral under tri-party agreements primarily includes U.S. government securities, pass-through mortgage securities of the Government National Mortgage Association, Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, and Federal National Mortgage Association, STRIP securities of the U.S. government and "stripped" securities of other government agencies. The tri-party agreements are accounted for as financing transactions, with the associated interest income accrued over the life of the agreement.
Securities sold under agreements to repurchase are accounted for as financing transactions and the associated interest expense is recognized over the life of the transaction. These transactions are carried in the Statements of Condition at their contractual amounts and the related accrued interest is reported as a component of "Other liabilities."
U.S. government securities held in the SOMA are lent to U.S. government securities dealers and to banks participating in U.S. government securities clearing arrangements in order to facilitate the effective functioning of the domestic securities market. Securities-lending transactions are fully collateralized by other U.S. government securities and the collateral taken is in excess of the market value of the securities loaned. The FRBNY charges the dealer or bank a fee for borrowing securities and the fees are reported as a component of "Other income" in the Statements of Income.
Activity related to U.S. government securities sold under agreements to repurchase and securities lending is allocated to each Reserve Bank on a percentage basis derived from the annual settlement of interdistrict clearings. Securities purchased under agreements to resell are allocated to the FRBNY and not to the other banks.
F/X swap arrangements are contractual agreements between two parties to exchange specified currencies, at a specified price, on a specified date. The parties agree to exchange their currencies up to a pre-arranged maximum amount and for an agreed-upon period of time (up to twelve months), at an agreed-upon interest rate. These arrangements give the FOMC temporary access to the foreign currencies it may need to intervene to support the dollar and give the counterparty temporary access to dollars it may need to support its own currency. Drawings under the F/X swap arrangements can be initiated by either the FRBNY or the counterparty (the drawer) and must be agreed to by the drawee. The F/X swaps are structured so that the party initiating the transaction bears the exchange rate risk upon maturity. The FRBNY will generally invest the foreign currency received under an F/X swap in interest-bearing instruments.
Warehousing is an arrangement under which the FOMC agrees to exchange, at the request of the U.S. Treasury, U.S. dollars for foreign currencies held by the U.S. Treasury or ESF over a limited period of time. The purpose of the warehousing facility is to supplement the U.S. dollar resources of the U.S. Treasury and ESF for financing purchases of foreign currencies and related international operations.
Foreign currency swaps and warehousing agreements are revalued daily at current market exchange rates. Activity related to these agreements, with the exception of the unrealized gains and losses resulting from the daily revaluation, is allocated to each Reserve Bank based on the ratio of each Reserve Bank's capital and surplus to aggregate capital and surplus at the preceding December 31. Unrealized gains and losses resulting from the daily revaluation are allocated to the FRBNY and not to the other Reserve Banks.
Bank premises and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated on a straight-line basis over estimated useful lives of assets ranging from two to fifty years. Major alterations, renovations, and improvements are capitalized at cost as additions to the asset accounts and are amortized over the remaining useful life of the asset. Maintenance, repairs, and minor replacements are charged to operating expense in the year incurred. Capitalized assets, including software, buildings, leasehold improvements, furniture, and equipment are impaired when it is determined that the net realizable value is significatly less than book value and is not recoverable.
Costs incurred for software, either developed internally or acquired for internal use, during the application development stage are capitalized based on the cost of direct services and materials associated with designing, coding, installing, or testing software. Capitalized software costs are amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the software applications, which range from two to five years.
Federal Reserve notes are the circulating currency of the United States. These notes are issued through the various Federal Reserve agents (the Chairman of the Board of Directors of each Reserve Bank) to the Reserve Banks upon deposit with such agents of certain classes of collateral security, typically U.S. government securities. These notes are identified as issued to a specific Reserve Bank. The Federal Reserve Act provides that the collateral security tendered by the Reserve Bank to the Federal Reserve agent must be equal to the sum of the notes applied for by such Reserve Bank.
Assets eligible to be pledged as collateral security include all Reserve Bank assets. The collateral value is equal to the book value of the collateral tendered, with the exception of securities, whose collateral value is equal to the par value of the securities tendered. The par value of securities pledged for securities sold under agreements to repurchase is deducted.
The Board of Governors may, at any time, call upon a Reserve Bank for additional security to adequately collateralize the Federal Reserve notes. To satisfy the obligation to provide sufficient collateral for outstanding Federal Reserve notes, the Reserve Banks have entered into an agreement that provides for certain assets of the Reserve Banks to be jointly pledged as collateral for the Federal Reserve notes of all Reserve Banks. In the event that this collateral is insufficient, the Federal Reserve Act provides that Federal Reserve notes become a first and paramount lien on all the assets of the Reserve Banks. Finally, as obligations of the United States, Federal Reserve notes are backed by the full faith and credit of the United States government.
The "Federal Reserve notes outstanding, net" account represents Federal Reserve notes outstanding, reduced by the currency issued to the Reserve Banks but not in circulation, of $148,152 million and $128,933 million at December 31, 2005 and 2004, respectively.
At December 31, 2005 all Federal Reserve notes outstanding were fully collateralized. All gold certificates, all special drawing rights certificates, and $745,120 million of domestic securities and securities purchased under agreements to resell were pledged as collateral. At December 31, 2005 no loans or investments denominated in foreign currencies were pledged as collateral.
The balance in the "Items in process of collection" line in the Statements of Condition primarily represents amounts that are attributable to checks deposited for collection by a depository institution and that, as of the balance sheet date, have not yet been collected from the payor depository institution. Deferred credit items are the counterpart liability to items in process of collection, and the amounts in this account arise from deferring credit for deposited items until the amounts are collected. The balances in both accounts can fluctuate and vary significantly from day to day.
The Federal Reserve Act requires that each member bank subscribe to the capital stock of the Reserve Banks in an amount equal to 6 percent of the capital and surplus of the member bank. These shares are nonvoting with a par value of $100 and may not be transferred or hypothecated. As a member bank's capital and surplus changes, its holdings of Reserve Bank stock must be adjusted. Currently, only one-half of the subscription is paid-in and the remainder is subject to call. By law, each Reserve Bank is required to pay each member bank an annual dividend of 6 percent on the paid-in capital stock. This cumulative dividend is paid semiannually. A member bank is liable for Reserve Bank liabilities up to twice the par value of stock subscribed by it.
The Board of Governors requires Reserve Banks to maintain a surplus equal to the amount of capital paid-in as of December 31. This amount is intended to provide additional capital and reduce the possibility that the Reserve Banks would be required to call on member banks for additional capital. Pursuant to Section 16 of the Federal Reserve Act, Reserve Banks are required by the Board of Governors to transfer to the U.S. Treasury as interest on Federal Reserve notes excess earnings, after providing for the costs of operations, payment of dividends, and reservation of an amount necessary to equate surplus with capital paid-in.
In the event of losses or an increase in capital paid-in at a Reserve Bank, payments to the U.S. Treasury are suspended and earnings are retained until the surplus is equal to the capital paid-in. Weekly payments to the U.S. Treasury may vary significantly.
In the event of a decrease in capital paid-in, the excess surplus, after equating capital paid-in and surplus at December 31, is distributed to U.S. Treasury in the following year. This amount is reported as "Payments to U.S. Treasury as interest on Federal Reserve notes."
The Reserve Banks are required by the Federal Reserve Act to serve as fiscal agents and depositories of the United States. By statute, the Department of the Treasury is permitted, but not required, to pay for these services.
The Board of Governors assesses the Reserve Banks to fund its operations based on each Reserve Bank's capital and surplus balances. The Board of Governors also assesses each Reserve Bank for the expenses incurred for the U.S. Treasury to issue and retire Federal Reserve notes based on each Reserve Bank's share of the number of notes comprising the System's net liability for Federal Reserve notes on December 31 of the previous year.
The Reserve Banks are exempt from federal, state, and local taxes, except for taxes on real property. Real propery taxes were $32 million and $33 million for the years ended December 31, 2005 and 2004, respectively, and are reported as a component of "Occupancy expense."
In 2003, the System began the restructuring of several operations, primarily check, cash, and U.S. Treasury services. The restructuring included streamlining the management and support structures, reducing staff, decreasing the number of processing locations, and increasing processing capacity in the remaining locations. These restructuring activities continued in 2004 and 2005.
Footnote 10 describes the restructuring and provides information about the Reserve Banks' costs and liabilities associated with employee separations and contract terminations. The costs associated with the write-down of certain Reserve Bank assets are discussed in footnote 6. Costs and liabilities associated with enhanced pension benefits in connection with the restructuring activities for all Reserve Banks are recorded on the books of the FRBNY and those associated with enhanced post-retirement benefits are discussed in footnote 9.
The FRBNY, on behalf of the Reserve Banks, holds securities bought outright in the SOMA.
Total securities held in the SOMA at December 31 were as follows (in millions):
|Total par value||744,215||717,819|
The maturity distribution of U.S. government securities bought outright, securities purchased under agreements to resell, and securities sold under agreements to repurchase, that were held in the SOMA at December 31, 2005, was as follows (in millions):
|Maturities of securities held||U.S. government
|Within 15 days||$ 41,010||$46,750||$30,505|
|16 days to 90 days||172,264||...||...|
|91 days to 1 year||186,283||...||...|
|Over 1 year to 5 years||210,745||...||...|
|Over 5 years to 10 years||56,699||...||...|
|Over 10 years||77,214
At December 31, 2005 and 2004, U.S. government securities with par values of $3,776 million and $6,609 million, respectively, were loaned from the SOMA.
At December 31, 2005 and 2004, securities sold under agreements to repurchase with a contract amount of $30,505 million and $30,783 million, respectively, were outstanding. At December 31, 2005 and 2004, securities sold under agreements to repurchase with a par value of $30,559 million and $30,808 million, respectively, were outstanding.
The FRBNY, on behalf of the Reserve Banks, holds foreign currency deposits with foreign central banks and the Bank for International Settlements and invests in foreign government debt instruments. Foreign government debt instruments held include both securities bought outright and securities purchased under agreements to resell. These investments are guaranteed as to principal and interest by the foreign governments.
Total investments denominated in foreign currencies, including accrued interest, and valued at current foreign currency market exchange rates at December 31, were as follows (in millions):
|European Union euro|
|Foreign currency deposits||$ 5,424||$ 6,079|
|Securities purchased under agreements to resell||1,928||2,142|
|Government debt instruments||3,561||3,947|
|Foreign currency deposits||2,618||1,540|
|Government debt instruments||5,397
The maturity distribution of investments denominated in foreign currencies at December 31, 2005, was as follows (in millions):
|Maturities of investments
|Within 15 days||$ 3,379||$2,617||$ 5,996|
|16 days to 90 days||2,574||679||3,253|
|91 days to 1 year||2,089||1,007||3,096|
|Over 1 year to 5 years||2,855||3,712||6,567|
|Over 5 years to 10 years||16
At December 31, 2005 and 2004, there were no material open foreign exchange contracts.
At December 31, 2005 and 2004, the warehousing facility was $5,000 million, with no balance outstanding.
A summary of bank premises and equipment at December 31 is as follows (in millions):
|Remaining useful life
(range in years)
|Bank premises and equipment|
|Building machinery and equipment||1-20||387||373|
|Construction in progress||N/A||86||202|
|Furniture and equipment||1-19||1,162
|Bank premises and equipment, net||$2,252
|Depreciation expense, for the years ended||$175
Bank premises and equipment at December 31 include the following amounts for leases that have been capitalized (in millions):
|Bank premises and equipment||$10||$11|
|Capitalized leases, net||$ 5
Certain of the Reserve Banks lease space to outside tenants with initial or remaining lease terms from 1 to 20 years. Rental income from such leases was $23 million and $21 million for the years ended December 31, 2005 and 2004, respectively. Future minimum lease payments under noncancelable agreements in existence at December 31, 2005, were (in millions):
The Reserve Banks have capitalized software assets, net of amortization, of $162 million and $170 million at December 31, 2005 and 2004, respectively. Amortization expense was $55 million and $56 million for the years ended December 31, 2005 and 2004, respectively. Capitalized software assets are reported as a component of "Other assets" and related amortization is reported as a component of "Other expenses."
Several Reserve Banks have impaired assets as a result of the System's restructuring plans, as discussed in footnote 10. Impaired assets include software, buildings, leasehold improvements, furniture, and equipment. Asset impairment losses related to the check and cash restructurings of $50 million and $21 million for the periods ending December 31, 2005 and 2004, respectively, were determined using fair values based on quoted market values or other valuation techniques and are reported as a component of "Other expenses."
At December 31, 2005, the Reserve Banks were obligated under noncancelable leases for premises and equipment with initital or remaining terms ranging from 1 to 18 years. These leases provide for increased rental payments based upon increases in real estate taxes, operating costs, or selected price indices.
Rental expense under operating leases for certain operating facilities, warehouses, and data processing and office equipment (including taxes, insurance and maintenance when included in rent), net of sublease rentals, was $40 million and $70 million for the years ended December 31, 2005 and 2004, respectively. Certain of the Reserve Banks' leases have options to renew.
Future minimum rental payments under noncancelable operating leases, net of sublease rentals, with terms of one year or more, at December 31, 2005, were (in millions):
At December 31, 2005, the Reserve Banks had other commitments and long-term obligations extending through the year 2017 with a remaining amount of $397 million. As of December 31, 2005, commitments of $185 million were recognized. Purchases of $144 million and $124 million were made against these commitments during 2005 and 2004, respectively. These commitments are for goods and services to maintain currency machines, for software licenses and maintenance, for services related to check processing equipment and transportation, and have variable and fixed components. The variable portion of the commitments is for additional services above fixed contractual service limits.
The fixed payments for the next five years under these commitments are (in millions):
The Reserve Banks are involved in certain legal actions and claims arising in the ordinary course of business. Although it is difficult to predict the ultimate outcome of these actions, in management's opinion, based on discussions with counsel, the aforementioned litigation and claims will be resolved without material adverse effect on the financial position or results of operations of the Reserve Banks.
The Reserve Banks currently offer three defined benefit retirement plans to their employees, based on length of service and level of compensation. Substantially all of the Reserve Banks', Board of Governors', and the Office of Employee Benefits of the Federal Reserve Employee Benefits System employees participate in the Retirement Plan for Employees of the Federal Reserve System (System Plan). Employees at certain compensation levels participate in the Benefit Equalization Retirement Plan (BEP) and certain Bank officers participate in the Supplemental Employee Retirement Plan (SERP).
The System Plan is a multi-employer plan with contributions fully funded by participating employers. Participating employers are the Federal Reserve Banks, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, and the Office of Employee Benefits of the Federal Reserve Employee Benefits System. No separate accounting is maintained of assets contributed by the participating employers. The FRBNY acts as a sponsor of the System Plan and the costs associated with the Plan are not redistributed to other participating employers.
Following is a reconciliation of the beginning and ending balances of the System Plan benefit obligation (in millions):
|Estimated actuarial present value of projected benefit obligation at January 1||$4,524||$3,930|
|Service cost--benefits earned during the period||123||116|
|Interest cost on projected benefit obligation||263||245|
|Contributions by plan participants||3||3|
|Special termination benefits loss||6||20|
|Estimated actuarial present value of projected benefit obligation at December 31||$4,785
Following is a reconciliation showing the beginning and ending balance of the System Plan assets, the funded status, and the prepaid pension benefit costs (in millions):
|Estimated fair value of plan assets at January 1||$5,887||$5,703|
|Actual return on plan assets||237||428|
|Contributions by the employer||...||...|
|Contributions by plan participants||3||3|
|Estimated fair value of plan assets at December 31||$5,868
|Unrecognized prior service cost||149||173|
|Unrecognized net actuarial loss||1,496
|Prepaid pension benefit costs||$2,728
Prepaid pension benefit costs are reported as a component of "Other assets."
The accumulated benefit obligation for the System Plan was $4,162 million and $3,894 million at December 31, 2005 and 2004, respectively.
The weighted-average assumptions used in developing the pension benefit obligation for the System Plan as of December 31 are as follows:
|Rate of compensation increase||4.50%||4.25%|
Net periodic benefit costs are actually determined using a January 1 measurement date. The weighted-average assumptions used in developing net periodic benefit cost for the System Plan for the years at January 1 are as follows:
|Expected asset return||8.25%||8.25%|
|Rate of compensation increase||4.25%||4.00%|
Discount rates reflect yields available on high quality corporate bonds that would generate the cash flows necessary to pay the plan's benefits when due.
Expected return on assets was based on a combination of methodologies including the System Plan's historical returns, surveys of what other plans' expected rates of return are, building a projected return for equities and fixed income investments based on real interest rates, inflation expectations and equity risk premiums, and, finally, surveys of expected returns in equity and fixed income markets.
The components of net periodic pension benefit credit for the System Plan for the years ended December 31 are shown below (in millions):
|Service cost--benefits earned during the period||$123||$116|
|Interest cost on projected benefit obligation||263||245|
|Amortization of prior service cost||24||24|
|Recognized net loss||49||20|
|Expected return on plan assets||(476)
|Net periodic pension benefit credit||(17)||(57)|
|Special termination benefits||6
|Net periodic pension benefit credit||$(11)
The recognition of special termination benefits is the result of enhanced retirement benefits provided to employees during the restructuring described in footnote 10.
Following is a summary of expected benefit payments excluding enhanced retirement benefits (in millions):
The Federal Reserve System's pension plan weighted-average asset allocations at December 31, by asset category, are as follows:
The System's Committee on Investment Performance (CIP) contracts with investment managers who are responsible for implementing the System Plan's investment policies. The managers' performance is measured against a trailing 36-month benchmark of 60 percent of a market value weighted index of predominantly large capitalization stocks trading on the New York Stock Exchange, the American Stock Exchange, and the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation National Market System and 40 percent of a broadly diversified investment-grade fixed income index (rebalanced monthly). The managers invest Plan funds within CIP-established guidelines for investment in equities and fixed income instruments. Equity investments can range between 40 percent and 80 percent of the portfolio. Investments, however, cannot be concentrated in particular industries and equity security holdings of any one company are limited. Fixed income securities must be investment grade and the effective duration of the fixed income portfolio must remain within a range of 67 percent and 150 percent of a broadly diversified investment-grade fixed income index. CIP guidelines prohibit margin, short sale, foreign exchange, and commodities trading as well as investment in bank, bank holding company, savings and loan, and government securities dealers stocks. In addition, investments in non-dollar denominated securities are prohibited; however, a small portion of the portfolio can be invested in American Depositary Receipts/Shares and foreign-issued dollar denominated fixed income securities.
The Federal Reserve System does not expect to make a cash contribution to the System Plan during 2006.
The Reserve Banks' projected benefit obligation and net pension costs for the BEP and the SERP at December 31, 2005 and 2004, and for the years then ended, are not material.
Employees of the Reserve Banks may also participate in the defined contribution Thrift Plan for Employees of the Federal Reserve System (Thrift Plan). The Reserve Banks' Thrift Plan contributions totaled $63 million for each of the years ended December 31, 2005 and 2004, and are reported as a component of "Salaries and other benefits." The Reserve Banks match employee contributions based on a specified formula. For the years ended December 31, 2005 and 2004, the Reserve Banks matched 80 percent on the first 6 percent of employee contributions for employees with less than five years of service and 100 percent on the first 6 percent of employee contributions for employees with five or more years of service.
In addition to the Reserve Banks' retirement plans, employees who have met certain age and length of service requirements are eligible for both medical benefits and life insurance coverage during retirement.
The Reserve Banks fund benefits payable under the medical and life insurance plans as due and, accordingly, have no plan assets.
Following is a reconciliation of beginning and ending balances of the benefit obligation (in millions):
|Accumulated postretirement benefit obligation at January 1||$869||$942|
|Service cost--benefits earned during the period||32||19|
|Interest cost of accumulated benefit obligation||49||52|
|Special termination loss||...||1|
|Contributions by plan participants||11||9|
|Accumulated postretirement benefit obligation at December 31||$947
At December 31, 2005 and 2004, the weighted-average discount rate assumptions used in developing the postretirement benefit obligation were 5.50 percent and 5.75 percent, respectively.
Discount rates reflect yields available on high quality corporate bonds that would generate the cash flows necessary to pay the plan's benefits when due.
Following is a reconciliation of the beginning and ending balance of the plan assets, the unfunded postretirement benefit obligation, and the accrued postretirement benefit costs (in millions):
|Fair value of plan assets at January 1||$ ...||$ ...|
|Contributions by the employer||48||42|
|Contributions by plan participants||11||8|
|Fair value of plan assets at December 31||$ ...
|Unfunded postretirement benefit obligation||$947||$869|
|Unrecognized net curtailment gain||...||5|
|Unrecognized prior service cost||105||128|
|Unrecognized net actuarial loss||(277)
|Accrued postretirement benefit costs||$775
Accrued postretirement benefit costs are reported as a component of "Accrued benefit costs."
For measurement purposes, the assumed health care cost trend rates at December 31 are as follows:
|Health care cost trend rate assumed for next year||9.00%||9.00%|
|Rate to which the cost trend rate is assumed to increase (the ultimate trend rate)||5.00%||4.75%|
|Year that the rate reaches the ultimate trend rate||2011||2011|
Assumed health care cost trend rates have a significant effect on the amounts reported for health care plans.
A one percentage point change in assumed health care cost trend rates would have the following effects for the year ended December 31, 2005 (in millions):
|One percentage point increase||One percentage point decrease|
|Effect on aggregate of service and interest cost components
of net periodic postretirement benefit costs
|Effect on accumulated postretirement benefit obligation||103||(86)|
The following is a summary of the components of net periodic postretirement benefit costs for the years ended December 31 (in millions):
|Service cost--benefits earned during the period||$ 32||$ 19|
|Interest cost of accumulated benefit obligation||49||52|
|Amortization of prior service cost||(21)||(17)|
|Recognized net actuarial loss||13
|Total periodic expense||73||62|
|Special termination loss||...
|Net periodic postretirement benefit costs (credit)||$ 68
Net postretirement benefit costs are actuarily determined using a January 1 measurement date. At January 1, 2005 and 2004, the weighted-average discount rate assumptions used to determine net periodic postretirement benefit costs were 5.75 percent and 6.25 percent, respectively.
Net periodic postretirement benefit costs are reported as a component of "Salaries and other benefits."
The 2005 service cost contains an adjustment by one Reserve Bank that resulted from a review of plan terms and assumptions. A plan amendment that modified the credited service period eligibility requirements created curtailment gains. The recognition of special termination losses is primarily the result of enhanced retirement benefits provided to employees during the restructuring described in footnote 10.
The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 established a prescription drug benefit under Medicare (Medicare Part D) and a federal subsidy to sponsors of retiree health care benefit plans that provide benefits that are at least actuarially equivalent to Medicare Part D. The benefits provided by the Reserve Banks' plan to certain participants are at least actuarially equivalent to the Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit. The estimated effects of the subsidy, retroactive to January 1, 2004, are reflected in actuarial loss in the accumulated postretirement benefit obligation and net periodic postretirement benefit costs.
Following is a summary of expected benefit payments (in millions):
|Year||Without subsidy||With subsidy|
|2006||$ 54||$ 49|
The Reserve Banks offer benefits to former or inactive employees. Postemployment benefit costs are actuarially determined using a December 31, 2005, measurement date and include the cost of medical and dental insurance, survivor income, and disability benefits. The accrued postemployment benefit costs recognized by the Reserve Banks at December 31, 2005 and 2004, were $124 million and $128 million, respectively. This cost is included as a component of "Accrued benefit costs." Net periodic postemployment benefit costs included in 2005 and 2004 operating expenses were $14 million and $17 million, respectively, and are recorded as a component of "Salaries and other benefits."
In 2003, several Reserve Banks announced plans for restructuring to streamline operations and reduce costs, including consolidation of check operations and staff reductions in various functions of the Banks. In 2004 and 2005, additional consolidation and restructuring initiatives were announced in the check, cash, savings bonds, marketing, purchasing, and Treasury operations.
These actions resulted in the following business restructuring charges (in millions):
Adjustments due to unrecognized accrued liabilities were offset against total charges. Without these offsets, total charges would have been $11 million in 2005.
Total employee separation costs are primarily severance costs related to staff reductions of approximately 2,411, including 348 and 945 staff reductions related to restructuring announced in 2005 and 2004, respectively. These costs are reported as a component of "Salaries and other benefits." Contract termination costs include the charges resulting from terminating existing lease and other contracts and are shown as a component of "Other expenses."
Restructing costs associated with the write-downs of certain Reserve Bank assets, including software, buildings, leasehold improvements, furniture, and equipment are discussed in footnote 6. Costs associated with enhanced pension benefits for all Reserve Banks are recorded on the books of the FRBNY as discussed in footnote 8. Costs associated with enhanced postretirement benefits are disclosed in footnote 9.
Future costs associated with the announced restructuring plans are estimed at $3 million.
The Reserve Banks anticipate substantially completing their announced plans in 2007.