The Federal Reserve Board eagle logo links to home page
Finance and Economics Discussion Series
Finance and Economics Discussion Series logo links to FEDS home page The Rise in U.S. Household Indebtedness: Causes and Consequences
Karen E. Dynan and Donald L. Kohn

Abstract: The ratio of total household debt to aggregate personal income in the United States has risen from an average of 0.6 in the 1980s to an average of 1.0 so far this decade. In this paper we explore the causes and consequences of this dramatic increase. Demographic shifts, house price increases, and financial innovation all appear to have contributed to the rise. Households have become more exposed to shocks to asset prices through the greater leverage in their balance sheets, and more exposed to unexpected changes in income and interest rates because of higher debt payments relative to income. At the same time, an increase in access to credit and higher levels of assets should give households, on average, a greater ability to smooth through shocks. We conclude by discussing some of the risks associated with some households having become very highly indebted relative to their assets.

Keywords: Household debt, consumer finance, personal saving

Full paper (152 KB PDF) | Full Paper (Screen Reader Version)

Home | FEDS | List of 2007 FEDS papers | Accessibility
To comment on this site, please fill out our feedback form.
Last update: August 19, 2007