This paper examines the historical effects of El Niņo on world prices and economic activity. Although the primary focus is on world real non-oil primary commodity prices, the effects on G-7 consumer price inflation and GDP growth are also considered. This paper has several distinct advantages over previous studies. First, several econometric models are estimated using fairly broad measures of prices and economic activity. Second, the models include continuous measures of El Niņo intensity (sea surface temperature and sea-level air pressure anomalies in the Pacific Ocean) rather than dummy variable measures. Finally, confidence intervals are constructed for all estimated effects of El Niņo on world prices and economic activity.
The analysis indicates that El Niņo has economically-important and statistically-significant effects on world real commodity prices. A one-standard-deviation surprise in El Niņo, for example, raises real commodity price inflation about 3-1/2 to 4 percentage points. Moreover, El Niņo appears to account for over 20 percent of commodity price inflation movements over the past several years. El Niņo also has some explanatory power for world consumer price inflation and world economic activity, accounting for about 10 to 15 percent of movements in those variables.
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Last update: July 19, 2001