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Monetary Policy Report submitted to the Congress on July 19, 2006, pursuant to section 2B of the Federal Reserve Act

Section 1


The U.S. economy continued to expand at a brisk rate, on balance, over the first half of 2006. Spending in the first quarter, which was especially robust, was temporarily buoyed by several factors, including federal spending for hurricane relief and the effects of favorable weather on homebuilding. The pace of the expansion moderated in the spring, to some degree because the influence of these special factors dissipated. More fundamentally, consumer spending slowed as further increases in energy prices restrained the real incomes of households. In addition, home sales and new homebuilding dropped back noticeably from the elevated levels of last summer, partly in response to higher mortgage interest rates. Outside of the household sector, increases in demand and production appear to have been well maintained in the second quarter. Demand for U.S. exports was supported by strong economic activity abroad, and business fixed investment remained on a solid upward trend. Early in the year, as aggregate output increased rapidly, businesses added jobs at a relatively robust pace, and the unemployment rate moved down further. Since April, monthly gains in payroll employment have been smaller but still sufficient to keep the jobless rate steady.

Thus far in 2006, inflation pressures have been elevated. Higher prices for crude oil contributed to a further run-up in domestic energy costs; this year's increases, combined with the steep increases in 2004 and 2005, not only boosted the prices of gasoline and heating fuel but also put upward pressure on the costs of production for a broad range of goods and services. Partly as a result of these cost pressures, the rate of core consumer price inflation picked up. Nevertheless, measures of inflation expectations remained contained, and the rate of increase in labor costs was subdued, having been held down by strong gains in productivity and moderate increases in labor compensation.

Taking a longer perspective, the U.S. economy appears to be in the midst of a transition in which the rate of increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) is moving from a pace above that of its longer-run capacity to a more moderate and sustainable rate. An important element in the transition is the lagged effect of the changes in monetary policy since mid-2004, changes that have been intended to keep inflation low and to promote sustainable economic expansion by aligning real economic activity more closely with the economy's productive potential. Moreover, longer-term interest rates have risen, contributing to increased borrowing costs for both households and businesses. Over time, pressures on inflation should abate as the pace of real activity moderates and, as futures markets suggest, the prices of energy and other commodities roughly stabilize. The resulting easing in inflation should help contain long-run inflation expectations.

Even as the rate of increase in real economic activity moderates, the prospects for sustained expansion of household and business spending appear favorable. Higher energy prices have put strains on household budgets, but once that effect fades, households should experience gains in real income consistent with the ongoing expansion of jobs. Household balance sheets remain generally sound; although some pockets of distress have surfaced, average delinquency rates on mortgages and other consumer debt are still low. Similarly, in the business sector, balance sheets are strong, credit quality is high, and most firms have ready access to funds. Sustained expansion of the global economy, along with the effects of the earlier depreciation of the foreign exchange value of the dollar, should support demand for U.S. exports. The potential for efficiency gains, as well as further declines in the relative cost of capital, are likely to continue to spur capital spending. Indeed, the ongoing advances in efficiency should sustain solid growth of labor productivity, providing support for gains in real wages and income.

As always, considerable uncertainties attend the outlook. Regarding inflation, the margin between production and consumption of crude oil worldwide is quite narrow, and oil markets are especially sensitive to news about the balance of supply and demand and to geopolitical events with the potential to affect that balance; adverse developments could result in yet another surge in energy costs. Indeed, futures markets provide only imperfect readings on the prospects for energy markets, as witnessed by the fact that the surprises in crude oil prices during the past few years have been predominantly to the upside. In addition, a further rise in prices of other, non-energy materials and commodities, if it materializes, could also intensify cost pressures. Another risk is that the effect on imported-goods prices of earlier declines in the foreign exchange value of the dollar, which has been limited to date, could become larger. More broadly, if the higher rate of core inflation seen this year persists, it could induce a deterioration in longer-run inflation expectations that, in turn, might give greater momentum to inflation. However, the risks to the inflation outlook are not entirely to the upside. In the current environment of elevated profit margins, competitive forces, both in domestic markets and from abroad, could impose significant restraint on the pricing decisions of businesses.

Regarding risks to the outlook for real activity, rates of increase in real GDP have been uneven during the past year, complicating the assessment of whether the pace of the economic expansion is moving into line with its underlying potential rate. One possible risk to the upside is that the softer tone of the recent data on real activity will prove transitory rather than mark a shift to a more sustainable underlying rate of expansion. For example, slower spending and hiring in recent months may represent a shorter-lived adjustment to a higher level of energy prices or to the unusually robust increases in economic activity earlier in the year. In coming months, a sharp rebound in consumer spending accompanied by an acceleration of capital spending could return real activity to a pace that would be unsustainable over the longer run. But downside risks also exist. In particular, the slowing in real estate markets since last summer has been moderate, and the easing of house-price inflation has been gradual. If the softening in the demand for housing and in real estate values becomes more pronounced, the resulting drop in construction activity and the erosion of household wealth could weaken aggregate demand noticeably. Consumer spending might be depressed by the loss of income and wealth, and that effect could be amplified if the downturn is abrupt enough to shake households' confidence about their ability to finance spending or manage their current financial obligations.

The Conduct of Monetary Policy over the First Half of 2006

The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) continued to firm the stance of monetary policy over the first half of 2006. At the time of the January meeting, available information suggested that underlying growth in aggregate demand was solid at the turn of the year. The expansion of real GDP in the fourth quarter of 2005 was estimated to have slowed temporarily, in part because of the disruptions associated with last autumn's hurricanes. Core inflation had stayed relatively low, and inflation expectations had remained contained. With rising energy prices and increases in resource utilization having the potential to add to inflationary pressures, the FOMC decided to extend the firming of policy that it had implemented over the previous eighteen months by tightening the policy rate 25 basis points, to 4-1/2 percent. The Committee indicated that some further policy firming might be needed to keep the risks to price stability and to sustainable economic growth roughly in balance.

Selected interest rates. By percent. Line chart with two  series (Target federal funds rate  and Ten-year Treasury). Date range is January 2003-July 2006. Both lines start in January 2003. The target federal funds rate  starts at about 1.25 percent. It stays at about 1.25 percent until   June 2003, then it decreases to about 1 percent in July 2003. It stays at about 1 percent until June 2004. From August 2004 to January 2006 series increases to end at about 5.25.  Ten-year Treasury starts at about 4 percent, then January 2003  July 2006 it fluctuates within the range of  about 3.2  and about 5 percent  to end at about 5 percent. NOTE: The data are daily and extend through July 12, 2006. The ten-year Treasury rate is the constant-maturity yield based on the most actively traded securities. The dates on the horizontal axis are those of FOMC meetings. SOURCE: Department of the Treasury and the Federal Reserve.

By March, economic activity appeared to be expanding rapidly, propelled by robust consumer spending and accelerating business investment. Although readings on core inflation for January and February were generally favorable, higher prices for energy and other commodities, together with relatively tight labor and product markets, threatened to add to existing inflation strains. Against this backdrop, the Committee raised the target federal funds rate another 25 basis points, to 4-3/4 percent. The statement released at the end of the meeting continued to point to the possible need for further policy firming.

Data received by the time of the May meeting confirmed that the economy had expanded robustly in the first quarter, though both consumer spending and housing activity appeared to have moderated in late winter. In addition, inflationary pressures had intensified as core consumer prices rose more rapidly in March than in earlier months. Inflation expectations, as measured by some surveys and by comparisons of yields on nominal and inflation-indexed Treasury securities, also rose in April. The Committee still judged those expectations to be contained, but it was mindful that a further increase could impart additional momentum to inflation, as could the surge in energy and other commodity prices and the drop in the foreign exchange value of the dollar that took place in April and early May. To gain greater assurance that inflationary forces would not intensify, the FOMC decided to raise the target federal funds rate another 25 basis points, bringing it to 5 percent. The FOMC also indicated in the policy statement that some further policy firming could be required. However, the Committee was aware that the cumulative effects of past monetary policy actions on economic activity could turn out to be larger than expected. Accordingly, the FOMC stressed that the extent and timing of any further firming would depend importantly on the evolution of the economic outlook as implied by incoming data.

By the time of the June meeting, available data appeared to confirm that economic growth had moderated from the strong pace evident earlier in the year. Consumer spending had softened, and activity in housing markets had continued to cool gradually. Evidence of inflationary pressures was accumulating, however, and core price inflation had increased. In addition, the high levels of resource utilization and of the prices for energy and other commodities had the potential to spur further inflation. Consequently, the FOMC decided to increase the target federal funds rate an additional 25 basis points, to 5-1/4 percent. The Committee recognized that the moderation in the growth of aggregate demand that appeared to be under way would help to limit inflationary pressures over time, but it judged that, even after its policy action, some upside inflation risks remained. Yet the FOMC made clear that the extent and timing of any additional firming needed to address those risks will depend on the evolution of the outlook for both inflation and economic growth as implied by incoming information.

In recent years, the FOMC has worked to improve the transparency of its decisionmaking process, and it continues to seek further improvements. Between the March and May meetings, the Chairman appointed a subcommittee to help the FOMC frame and organize the discussion of a broad range of communication issues. At the June meeting, the Committee discussed the subcommittee's plans for work in coming months and decided to begin its consideration of communication issues at its August meeting and to lengthen meetings later this year to allow a fuller discussion of these issues.

Economic Projections for 2006 and 2007

In conjunction with the FOMC meeting at the end of June, the members of the Board of Governors and the Federal Reserve Bank presidents, all of whom participate in the deliberations of the FOMC, provided economic projections for 2006 and 2007. In broad terms, the participants expect a sustained, moderate expansion of real economic activity during the next year and a half. The central tendency of the FOMC participants' forecasts for the increase in real GDP is 3-1/4 percent to 3-1/2 percent over the four quarters of 2006 and 3 percent to 3-1/4 percent in 2007. The central tendency of their forecasts for the civilian unemployment rate is 4-3/4 percent to 5 percent in the fourth quarter of this year, and the jobless rate is expected to still be in that range at the end of 2007. For inflation, the central tendency of the forecasts is an increase in the price index for personal consumption expenditures excluding food and energy (core PCE) of 2-1/4 percent to 2-1/2 percent over the four quarters of 2006; in 2007, the forecast shows a slower rate of 2 percent to 2-1/4 percent, which is similar to the rate of core PCE price inflation in 2004 and 2005.

Economic projections for 2006 and 2007
Federal Reserve Governors
Reserve Bank presidents



Change, fourth quarter
to fourth quarter

Nominal GDP 5-1/2 to
6 to
Real GDP 3 to
3-1/4 to
PCE price index excluding food and energy 2-1/4 to
2-1/4 to

Average level, fourth quarter
Civilian unemployment
4-1/2 to

4-3/4 to

Change, fourth quarter
to fourth quarter

Nominal GDP 4-3/4 to
5 to
Real GDP 2-1/2 to
3 to
PCE price index excluding food and energy 2 to
2 to

Average level, fourth quarter
Civilian unemployment
4-1/4 to

4-3/4 to

    1.   Change from average for fourth quarter of previous year to average for fourth quarter
of year indicated. Return to text

A slowing in activity now appears to be under way in the housing sector, where home sales and residential construction have receded from the elevated levels of last summer. The associated easing in house-price appreciation will likely temper gains in household wealth, which, over time, may be a factor in damping consumer spending. However, households' financial positions should receive a boost from an acceleration of real income if energy prices stabilize as suggested by futures markets. In the business sector, participants view the outlook for fixed investment over the forecast period as positive. Although outlays for new equipment and software may increase a little more slowly with the deceleration in real output, investment opportunities appear to remain attractive: The relative user cost of capital for equipment, particularly high-technology items, is expected to remain favorable, and competitive pressures should maintain strong incentives to exploit opportunities for efficiency gains and cost reduction. At the same time, nonresidential construction seems likely to continue to move up. Finally, the strong performance of the economies of the United States' major trading partners should continue to stimulate U.S. exports of goods and services.

The more moderate pace of expansion and the stability in resource utilization, when coupled with less pressure from the prices of energy and other commodities, should contribute to an environment in which inflation expectations are contained and inflation edges lower. Moreover, ongoing solid gains in productivity should work to limit increases in unit labor costs.

Over the next year and a half, FOMC participants expect the economy to achieve a sustainable rate of economic expansion. That rate will be determined in large part by the rate of increase in productivity. Productivity has been rising at a solid rate over the past two years, albeit more slowly than the especially rapid pace that prevailed during the first three years of the expansion. A strong trend in productivity is likely to be maintained as businesses take advantage of new investment in facilities and equipment, as diffusion of technology continues, and as organizational advancements and business process improvements yield further increases in efficiency.

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Last update: July 19, 2006