Supervisory Policy and Guidance Topics
Real estate lending represents one of the major components of credit risk at many banks. The composition of a bank's real estate portfolio will vary based on differences in lending experience, market competition, and asset size. The Federal Reserve Board's real estate lending standards are found in 12 CFR 208, subpart E. The "Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending Policies" are located in Regulation H, subpart I, 12 CFR 208, appendix C.
Commercial Real Estate
One of the most prevalent pieces of commercial real estate (CRE) guidance is, "Concentrations in CRE Lending, Sound Risk-Management Practices (PDF)," which was issued on December 6, 2006. This interagency supervisory guidance was developed to reinforce sound risk-management practices for institutions with high and increasing concentrations of commercial real estate loans on their balance sheets.
Residential Real Estate and Mortgages
In addition to providing supervisory guidance regarding residential real estate lending, this subsection also contains guidance on subprime lending. Subprime lending involves extending credit to borrowers who exhibit characteristics that indicate a significantly higher risk of default than traditional bank lending customers.
The Federal Reserve Board’s real estate appraisal standards are found in Regulation H, subpart E, 12 CFR 208.50–51 for state member banks. For BHCs, the appraisal standards can be found in Regulation Y, subpart G, 12 CFR 225.61-67. The standards primarily focus on the responsibilities of the bank's board of directors for developing and issuing lending policies.
The Federal Reserve Board's Division of Consumer and Community Affairs issues Consumer Affairs (CA) letters addressing policy and procedural matters of continuing relevance to the Fed’s consumer compliance supervisory responsibilities.
Frequently Asked Questions on the Appraisal Regulations and the Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines
Temporary Exceptions to the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act of 1989 (FIRREA) Appraisal Requirements in Areas Affected by Severe Storms and Flooding Related to Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria
Interagency Advisory on the Availability of Appraisers
Interagency Advisory on the Use of Evaluations in Real Estate-Related Financial Transactions
Guidance on Managing Outsourcing Risk
Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines
Interagency Statement on Appraisals for Affordable Housing Loans
Real Estate Appraisal Requirements for Other Real Estate Owned (OREO)
Interagency Statement on Prudent Risk Management for Commercial Real Estate Lending
Prudent Commercial Real Estate Loan Workouts
Interagency Guidance on Concentrations in Commercial Real Estate
Interagency FAQs on Residential Tract Development Lending
Clarification on Real Estate Lending Standards
Real Estate Lending Standards
Interagency Guidance on Home Equity Lines of Credit Nearing Their End-of-Draw Periods
Interagency Statement on Supervisory Approach for Qualified and Non-Qualified Mortgage Loans
Minimum Standards for Prioritization and Handling Borrower Files with Imminent Scheduled Foreclosure Sale
Guidance on a Lender’s Decision to Discontinue Foreclosure Proceedings
Questions and Answers for Federal Reserve-Regulated Institutions Related to the Management of Other Real Estate Owned (OREO)
Policy Statement on Rental of Residential Other Real Estate Owned (OREO) Properties
Statement on Loss Mitigation Strategies for Servicers of Residential Mortgages
Statement on Subprime Mortgage Lending
Working with Mortgage Borrowers
Interagency Guidance on Nontraditional Mortgage Product Risks
Interagency Credit Risk Management Guidance for Home Equity Lending
Accounting and Reporting for Commitments to Originate and Sell Mortgage Loans
Risk Management and Valuation of Mortgage Servicing Assets Arising from Mortgage Banking Activities
Guidance on Supervision of Subprime Lending
Interagency Guidance on High Loan-To-Value Residential Real Estate Lending
- An Analysis of the Impact of the Commercial Real Estate Concentration Guidance (PDF) | HTML (April 4, 2013)
- Interagency Statement on Meeting the Needs of Creditworthy Borrowers (November 12, 2008)
- Bank Holding Company Supervision Manual
- Section 2231.0, "Real Estate Appraisals and Evaluations"
- Section 3270.0, "Section 4(c)(8) of the BHC Act (Real Estate and Personal Property Appraising)"
- Section 3070.0, "Section 4(c)(8) of the BHC Act (Mortgage Banking)"
- Section 2128.08, "Subprime Lending (Risk Management and Internal Controls)"
- Commercial Bank Examination Manual
- Section 2090.1, "Real Estate Loans"
- Section 2080.1, "Commercial and Industrial Loans"
- Section 2100, "Real Estate Construction Loans"
- Section 2103.1, "Concentrations in Commercial Real Estate Lending, Sound Risk–Management Practices"
- Section 2040.1, "Loan Portfolio Management" (Mortgage Banking Subsection)
- Section 2043.1, "Nontraditional Mortgages–Associated Risks"
- Section A.2040.3, "Loan Portfolio Management: Comprehensive Mortgage Banking Examination Procedures"
- Section 2133.1, "Subprime Lending"
- Section 2135.1, "Subprime Mortgage Lending"
- Section 2200.1, "Other Real Estate Owned"
- Section 4140.1, "Real Estate Appraisals and Evaluations"